Stem cells transplantation can be made to the baby itself (autologous transplantation) or can be made to other family members as well as people in the community who have a match in biological index.
The effectiveness of umbilical cord stem cells transplantation depends on many different factors, and one of the most important factors is a compatible in biological index, with the most used is HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen). HLA markers are unique, and are passed from parents to their chidren, seen as the fingerprint of oneself’s immune system. These markers allow the immune system to regconize and distinguish the body’s cells with exogenous cells.
If HLA markers of the donor and the receiver are identical, or in cases of autologous transplantation, the transplanted stem cells will be easily accepted. In cases that there is only a partial compatibility, methods to support the immune system to reduce GVHD (Graft versus Host Disease) will be applied.